Chapter 14: Characters of Evil

(Mahler, “Symphony #6, 1st Movement”)

Vlad Tepes a.k.a. “Dracula”

Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele

The victims of Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele

Ion Antonescu

Nicolae Ceausescu

Nicolae Ceausescu

Nicolae Ceausescu

Nicolae Ceausescu with Arafat

Yasser Arafat

Ali Bhutto

Abdul Qadeer Khan

Abdul Qadeer Khan

Muammar al-Qaddafi

Col. Qaddafi and Ceausescu in Tripoli, 1974

Kim Jong II

In 1990, six months after Ceausescu was executed, my husband and I arrived in Bucharest. On our first evening, we went to dinner with several of his childhood friends to the best restaurant in the city, which was in the Athénée Plaza Hotel. When we entered, I noticed several tables of men, without women. Some men wore scarved turbans; all had dark moustaches and beards. They were ordering champagne and caviar while blonde Romanian women entertained them by belly-dancing. The men, one by one, came up to the stage and stuffed a hundred dollar bill into each dancer’s bra. I looked around at the Romanian waiters so subservient and the Gypsy musicians playing Arabic music, and I wondered, what is going on?

That is when I decided to research the situation.

“The Gift of Diamonds” is historical fiction in its narrative storyline and political fresco of Romania from 1940-1989. Through the eyes of the main protagonist, Mica, we see how Fascism led to Communism, which gave birth to Terrorism. Nicolae Ceausescu, the ruthless dictator of Romania for 24 years, was at center stage during all these periods. Due to his uncontested power and insatiable ambition to be the Power Broker and middleman-mediator between America and the Middle East, Ceausescu created himself to become the Father of modern-day Terrorism.

Ceausescu was a complex man. He was short, not more than 5’4” and his favorite pastime was to watch movies in his private screening room. His favorite films were about Napoleon, his role model.

Ceausescu had a difficult time expressing himself because he stuttered and was self- conscious of the weakness. He was not educated, barely finishing elementary school; yet, he was clever, quick to scheme and double-cross whoever prevented him to get his way, even his friends. He was of peasant stock, a man of simple pleasures, but ferociously hungry for power and money.

He entered the Communist party at the age of fourteen and was imprisoned three times during World War II by Antonescu’s Fascist government for being a member of the disallowed Communist party. Jail became his schoolyard and he learned from other imprisoned Communists about Stalin, Marx and Lenin. This is where he met his mentor, Gheorghiu-Dej, who went on to become Romania’s post-war communist dictator.

While in jail, Ceausescu was Gheorghiu-Dej’s servant. He brought him his meals, shined his shoes, did his errands, slept outside his bedroom door. Ceausescu was a silent, waiting watchdog.

He was not a bookish man, hardly able to converse about anything other than Bolshevik doctrine, but he was shrewd enough to realize that Communism could open doors for him. He had an innate sense of timing and took advantage of each moment that favored him.

Ceausescu followed Gheorghiu-Dej as communist leader in 1965 and solidified his dictatorship with a rabid secret police, spies, and schemes. He enlisted General Ion Pacepa to be his chief of espionage (who later defected to Washington D.C. in 1978) and positioned himself as a political Power Broker between the West and East. However, his true motive was for Economics, and he brokered a career worth billions of dollars with his Arab friends, Yasser Arafat and Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.

His relationship with Yasser Arafat began as early as 1967. He called Arafat his “brother” and “clever fox” and it was through him that Ceausescu was able to infiltrate into Arab circles. In return for Arafat’s introductions, Ceausescu was willing to render him favors. One service was to train the PLO’s in Romania. Some people say Ceausescu trained Arafat’s bodyguards; others say he set up a military compound to train PLO suicide bombers with Arab translators to teach them how to fly planes.

Through Arafat’s support, Ceausescu went on to work closely in a symbiotic Machiavellian system with Colonel Gaddafi who became his venture capitalist and client. Oil was their first partnership. Their idea was to set up a modern oil refinery on the Black Sea to process Libyan crude oil and export the by-products as Romanian. In this way, they were able to circumvent an international boycott of Libyan oil.

Ceausescu built the first major oil refinery in the world in Brazi, 35 miles north of Bucharest. As far back as the 1850’s Romania was rich in oil, especially in the oil fields of Ploiesti, 56 miles north of Bucharest. Hitler used Romania’s oil production, which he needed for his tanks as the German Army entered Romania and the Ukraine on to Stalingrad in their Eastern Front. But Hitler left the oil reserves depleted and the Allies bombed the fields to nothing. Ceausescu decided to rebuild them with Gaddafi’s money.

After their oil venture, Ceausescu offered to Gaddafi what Romania did best – forged passports. Gaddafi needed them for his terrorist friends, especially Carlos the Jackal, as well as a safe airport for Carlos to enter Europe. Ceausescu had contacts in West Germany and made arrangements for Carlos to sneak into western Europe undetected. In return for this favor, Carlos killed Romanian broadcasters working for Radio Free Europe in Paris and bombed their Headquarters in Munich. Ceausescu was not happy about the messages coming from these dissidents.

Ceausescu and Gaddafi solidified their friendship and went on to many other business ventures. All the time Gaddafi wanted to be the most powerful leader in the Muslim world and Ceausescu wanted to be the richest man in Eastern Europe. Arafat, their other business brother, wanted to have a Palestine devoid of Jews. Their goals coincided. And Arafat offered to this triumvirate an interesting business concept:

His PLO’s  had captured in Lebanon a Fokker tank, which he sent to Romania to be copied and manufactured. Ceausescu and Gaddafi went on to produce and sell the tank as well as machine guns, armaments, special bullets, nuclear reactors, centrifuges, plutonium, heavy water for uranium production, bacteriological weapons and powerful napalm missiles.

Ceausescu amassed huge profits in his role as an arms dealer, selling weapons, ammunition, military equipment, tanks, nuclear centrifuges, and plutonium to Libya, Syria, Iraq and North Korea. In 1985 Romania had become the world’s fifth major exporter of weapons and ammunition. Ceausescu even sold Soviet military technology to the United States which included anti-aircraft systems, mobile rocket launchers, radar systems, air defense systems and non-nuclear weapons.

Ceausescu was an avid businessman and as dictator of Romania, he looked at every political relationship with the eye of a capitalist. He bought Alouette helicopters that fly in high altitudes and Pumacopters that fly at night from President Giscard D’Estaing of France to help the French President show an economic profit for his re-election campaign. In return, Giscard introduced Ceausescu to his “friend and family member,” Jean Bedel Bokassa, dictator of Central Africa Republic, in control of the world’s richest diamond mines. In 1975, Ceausescu invited Bokassa to Bucharest and saw to it that a beautiful Romanian intelligence officer would entertain the dictator. She later became Mrs. Bokassa and her husband was satisfied with 10% of the profits that Ceausescu extracted from his mining concessions in Central Africa. Giscard’s friendship with Bokassa ended in 1979 when France’s Renseignments Généraux, Intelligence Service, learned of Bokassa’s willingness to become business partners with Gaddafi.

Ceausescu’s interest in diamonds was sparked by his Central African venture and in the late 1970’s, he clandestinely set up a factory in Romania to produce synthetic diamonds based on the technology his secret agents stole from De Beers Company in South Africa.

But what Ceausescu made the most money from was an intricate trade market of human beings – of Jews and ethnic Germans to leave Romania and emigrate to Israel, West Germany and western countries. In the book, “The Ransom of the Jews,” author Radu Ioanid, gives us a precise exposé of how Ceausescu made millions of dollars in cash from 1968 to 1989 by selling human beings. As Ceausescu said many times, “Jews, Germans and oil are our best export commodities.”

When Ceausescu saw that there was also money to be made in nuclear energy, the Comrade got involved. In 1967 he began dealing with the CaMican company, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, for its uranium and nuclear reactors called CANDU. Ceausescu’s goal was to build nuclear reactor centers with the help of  CaMican and then to export the atomic CANDU reactors, as well as atomic energy, uranium, plutonium, and heavy water, to Third World countries. He built such centers in Romania, in the cities of Cernavoda and Targoviste. In Cernavoda, Ceausescu built Eastern Europe’s first nuclear power plant that used western equipment, CaMican parts, not Russian. In Targoviste, he created a center to produce special valves for nuclear reactors that were based entirely on the secret technological intelligence from Canada’s CANDU reactors. His first son, Valentin, worked there after he received an engineering degree in London. However all the transactions that Ceausescu made with Canada were used in ways that Canada did not agree to.

As early as 1975, Ceausescu wanted to partner with Pakistan’s Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to increase Romania’s nuclear capability.  When Ceausescu went to Karachi to pursue his interest, the dictator provided Bhutto with an inventory of nuclear intelligence information that Romania had the means to provide to Pakistan. Included was information on the Degussa centrifuge system for enriching uranium and the production of uranium 235, both essential to produce nuclear power. Ceausescu had these blueprints from one of his secret agents who worked in West Germany as an engineer for URENCO, a nuclear research consortium which specializes in uranium enrichment. The spy stole the designs for Ceausescu and returned to Romania for a big promotion.

Coincidentally, at the same time in 1975, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was working in URENCO in Holland and living there with a Dutch woman who became his wife. In 1976, he left Holland with stolen blueprints of high-powered Dutch SNOR centrifuges which are fast enough to enrich uranium into nuclear bomb-grade material. Dr. Khan, with the blessings and backing of Bhutto, set up a nuclear research program in Islamabad, Pakistan in 1976 and worked to become the Father of Pakistan’s nuclear bomb. To achieve this, Dr. Khan built SNOR centrifuges with the stolen blueprints. Bhutto did not need Ceausescu anymore. He had Dr. Khan, who went on to produce and sell nuclear parts, centrifuges and reactors to make nuclear bombs for rogue nations in an international nuclear bazaar.

One of Dr. Khan’s most important clients was Gaddafi. Both men shared the common goal to use nuclear weapons for the Muslim world. Dr. Khan was driven by his ambition that if Muslims possess nuclear weapons, they would be able to return Islam to greatness.

Colonel Gaddafi had tried in the late 1980’s with Ceausescu’s assistance to build a nuclear program in Tripoli that would reprocess plutonium and use high-powered centrifuges to enrich uranium. With Dr. Khan’s assistance, Colonel Gaddafi did not have to give up his dream.

In 1995, Gaddafi made contact with Dr. Khan, who supplied the Libyans with technical instructions on how to build a nuclear warhead. In 1997, Dr. Khan sent ships to Tripoli with crate loads of centrifuges and equipment, routing the ships through Europe and Dubai. For this transaction, Gaddafi paid Dr. Khan $100 million.

At the end of Ceausescu’s dictatorial regime in December 1989, Romania had generated a trade surplus as large as $2 billion a year with zero debt. And yet, the Romanian people were starving, had little heat, insufficient electricity, no goods, no money, no human rights. Romania was second to Albania as the poorest country in Eastern Europe. However, when the East started to unite with the West, Ceausescu opposed Gorbachev and his Glasnost andPerestoika  policies. Ceausescu wanted Communism to continue and his lucrative business deals to increase with his dictatorial powers.

His countrymen had enough of Ceausescu. On December 16, 1989 the residents of Timisoara demonstrated against him. This began the spark to ignite the entire country.
Protest and fighting brought the country to chaos. Romania was the only Eastern European country that toppled their government in a “bloody” revolution. And where was the leader when all this was happening? Ceausescu was in Iran, continuing his business deals.

Upon his return home from Teheran on December 21, he tried to quiet the protestors in Bucharest, but thousands continued to fight. On December 22, he tried to speak to the crowds again, but they answered by throwing stones. Ceausescu had his Minister of Defense, General Milea, shot, because the General had ordered the Army not to shoot the dissidents. Ceausescu then ordered his special “Killer Commando” comprised of Arab-trained terrorists to shoot the civilians at random. That afternoon, Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, had their personal helicopter take them from the roof of the Central Committee building and fly them to safety. Instead, they landed in the countryside, were taken into a car, and captured.

On December 25, they were tried by an improvised military tribunal in the town of Tirgoviste. The irony of history is that Tirgoviste was where Ceausescu had built a nuclear reactor center to flaunt his glory. The Ceausescus were imprisoned in an army barracks for three days and then taken to a nearby schoolroom that was turned into a courtroom. They were tried, found guilty of genocide and crimes against Humanity, and. quickly executed before a firing squad.

The speed of the trial and the execution were orchestrated by a group of Ceausescu’s inner circle collaborators who had turned into enemies overnight. They knew first hand how important it was to keep quiet all their secrets of 24 years.

Trial of Ceausescu YouTube footage:



Lt. General Ion Pacepa, Ceausescu’s chief of Foreign Intelligence, writes in his memoir, Red Horizons, on p. 21, that in 1968, “Two Romanian nuclear specialists defected to the West and found employment in Canada’s nuclear facility, AECL, the Atomic Energy of Canada, on the reactor project, CANDU. Ceausescu saw the perfect solution for making Romania an exporter of atomic power plants, uranium, and heavy water throughout the Third World.”

Pacepa writes in Red Horizons, p. 294, “On November 19, 1977, Romania also signed an agreement with Canada to buy parts for one or two nuclear reactors to be built in Cernavoda as a model for promoting Romanian export of nuclear power plants.”
(http://www.ccnr/org/exports); (Exporting Disaster: The Cost of Selling CANDU Reactors, “Chapter 2, “China, India, Romania, Korea, Turkey,” by David Martin, November 1996, Ontario, Canada.)

“Rate of Nuclear Thefts Disturbingly High, Monitoring Chief says,”The New York Times, by Neil MacFarquhar, October 28, 2008, p. A4, “Mohammed El Baradei, United Nations Chief of the International Atomic Energy Agency, claims there is a great number of nuclear and radioactive material stolen by countries of the former Soviet bloc.”

While researching for “The Gift of Diamonds,” I found in the United Nations library a letter dated July 2, 1992 addressed to Hans Blix, the Director General of the U.N. International Atomic Energy Agency. The letter stated that under the former regime in Romania, Ceausescu had established, “lab-scale research studies on nuclear fuel and plutonium” that had not been reported to the IAEA.

Romania and the Nuclear Bomb

“Former Romanian spy-master Ion Mihai Pacepa, who defected in 1978, has accused the former regime of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu of initiating a nuclear weapons program. Pacepa was with the Romanian secret police, the Securitate, for 27 years before defecting. He also alleged that Romania was cooperating with Pakistan.

“There was clearly some truth to the report. In 1992, the (post- Ceausescu) Romanian government contacted the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to report its discovery of 100 milligrams of plutonium that had been separated in December 1985 at the Pitesti Nuclear Research Institute. The plutonium had been separated from fuel irradiated in a Triga research reactor supplied by the US. While the amount of plutonium separated was small, the act was a clear violation of Romania’s commitments made under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. A more extensive nuclear weapons program may have been covered up.

“There is also irrefutable evidence that Romania had black-market nuclear trade relations with another ‘threshold’ nuclear weapons state. In 1990, the post-Ceausescu Romanian government disclosed that 12.5 tonnes of heavy water it had purchased from Norway in 1986 had been secretly diverted to India ~ a country that has not signed the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. Again this transaction was in violation of NPT commitments.

“These proven violations of Canadian and international proliferation regimes indicate the relative ineffectiveness of those protocols in the face of an unscrupulous and determined regime.” (http://www.ccnr/org/exports); (Exporting Disaster: The Cost of Selling CANDU Reactors, “Chapter 2, “China, India, Romania, Korea, Turkey,” by David Martin, November 1996, Ontario, Canada.)

“Romania signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In spite of this, under Ceausescu, Romania had a secret weapons development program that was not declared to the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency and was only stopped in 1992.”

. As of 1972 Arafat and Ceausescu began extensive meetings in Romania. In 1976, Ceausescu and Arafat agreed to exchange intelligence advisors. The PLO nominated Hani Hassan (who was in charge of the massacre of eleven Israeli Olympians at the September 5, 1972 Olympics in Munich). Ceausescu sent Ion Pacepa to represent Romania.
. It was Ceausescu who gave Arafat the idea to transform the PLO into a Palestinian government-in-exile in Tunisia (1982-1993). Ceausescu advised Arafat, “It would be much easier to persuade the West to negotiate with a government-in-exile than with a terrorist organization… When I get to Washington, I want to put it to Carter that I, and only I, can change the PLO, and that I am willing to do so, if he agrees to transfer the negotiations from Camp David to Geneva.” (Red Horizons, by Ion Pacepa, p.27.)
. Clearly Ceausescu’s idea to create Arafat as a chameleon was to endorse peace. But his true motive was to become a Power Broker and mediator-middleman between the U.S. and the Middle East. Yasser Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize for Peace in 1994 with Prime Minister of Israel Rabin and Shimon Peres.
. “The KGB Man,” Wall St. Journal, by Ion Pacepa, September 22, 2003, describes how Ceausescu and Pacepa created an image for Arafat with the blessings of the KGB and how Arafat went on to be a career terrorist.
. “The KGB Man,” Wall St. Journal, by Ion Pacepa, September 22, 2003, describes how Ceausescu and Pacepa created an image for Arafat with the blessings of the KGB and how Arafat went on to be a career terrorist. It was Ceausescu who helped Arafat train PLO’s in the Carpathian Mountains, far from western eyes, to become the first suicide bombers. Ceausescu even set up language schools where Romanians spoke in Arabic to give their instructions in how to pilot.


. With Gaddafi’s money, Ceausescu sent his agricultural experts to construct farms all over Libya in the 1970’s and made a fortune and a friend. (Red Horizons, by Ion Pacepa, p. 101.)
. Stolen passports were an important link between Ceausescu, Gaddafi and Arafat.
In order to stage terrorist acts abroad without involving Tripoli directly, the Libyan government amassed passports that were stolen from workers in Tunisia as well as forged passports made by Ceausescu’s experts. (Arafat and the PLO’s were in exile in Tunisia during this period)
. The New York Times article, “Hostages Sought, Vienna Gunmen Say,” by Paul Lewis, December 31, 1985, p. A 4, “The Libyans are to this day organizing terrorist missions with the help of this passport collection. The terrorists who made an attack at the El Al checkout counter in the Vienna airport on December 27, 1985 were traveling with stolen Tunisian passports. Several hundred Tunisian passports were confiscated recently by the Libyans from Tunisian workers.”
. Ceausescu and Gaddafi were also business partners with oil. “Ceausescu set up an oil refinery on the Black Sea to process only Libyan crude oil with the products to be exported as Romanian – as a safety valve for Gaddafi, in case of a western boycott of Libyan oil.” (Red Horizons, by Ion Pacepa, p. 105).
. Ceausescu and Gaddafi established joint ventures to manufacture tanks based on Germany’s Leopold II, airplanes as the Fokker-614, and bacteriological weapons. Ceausescu wanted the site to be secret. “The tank assembly line should not be in Bucharest but hidden in a mountainous area.” (Ibid., p.369.)

. In 1975, Bhutto was Pakistan’s Prime Minister and the leader behind Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan’s ascent to become Pakistan’s “Father of the Nuclear Bomb.” (The New York Times, November 5, 2004; The New York Times, November 24, 2004; Time magazine, “The Merchant of Menace,” February 14, 2005, pp. 22-30.
. Ion Pacepa describes Ceausescu and Bhutto’s friendship: “In 1975 I showed Ceausescu’s DIE (Romania’s Espionage Agency) information indicating that Pakistan was conducting ultra-secret operations to develop its own military nuclear capability. That was also Ceausescu’s secret dream.” Red Horizons, by Ion Pacepa, pp. 300-302.
. Bhutto and Ceausescu met for the first time in Karachi in 1975. Pacepa recounts the meeting: Ceausescu began, “You and I share the same dream… and the best way to do that is to build up our power. In our day the only real power is nuclear power. We should build it secretly. … In this envelope is a sample of what we can do. Bhutto carefully put the envelope into his pocket. It contained an inventory of the nuclear intelligence information Romania could secretly provide to Pakistan. (Ibid., p.301.)
Four weeks after this encounter, Radu Andreescu, an engineer working for Ceausescu, went to Pakistan with a voluminous diplomatic pouch containing sensitive nuclear information obtained from the CaMican project of the CANDU reactor as well as French nuclear security systems. He brought back to Romania supplementary intelligence on the Degussa centrifuge system for enriching uranium on which Bucharest was already working, and significant data on the industrial production of Uranium 235.”
(Ibid.,  pp. 301-302.) (Note: Uranium 235 is an isotope, a form of uranium whose atomic arrangements can generate a nuclear reaction.)
. In 1975, Dr. Khan was working for URENCO in Holland and lived there with his Dutch wife. After one year, they left Holland with stolen blueprints of centrifuges. In 1976, Pakistan with Dr. Khan as the Director of their Nuclear Agency, began building Dutch SNOR centrifuges.

. Ceausescu did business with Iran’s Shah Reza Pahlavi and his brother in the 1980’s.
. On December 17, 1989, Ceausescu and his wife left Bucharest to visit Teheran, despite the beginnings of demonstrations and violence in Timisoara. For two days they stayed in Iran for business purposes. “Romania and Iran were negotiating an arms deal. In addition, Romania was close to sealing an agreement to modernize for Iran all the Warsaw Pact military equipment that Iran secured during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. Romania was also building for Iran a naval base as well as a tractor plant to produce military vehicles. In exchange, Romania was to receive from Iran crude oil and natural gas per year as well as $2 billion worth of contracts.”(The Romania Revolution, by Peter Siani-Davies, p. 69).
. When Ceausescu returned to Bucharest two days later, violence and revolution had spread from Timisoara to Bucharest.

. Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu’s fascination with diamonds led them to create a friendship with Jean Bedel Bokassa, Central African dictator, whose country was known for their diamond mines. It all began, “In 1975 they invited Bokassa to make an official visit to Bucharest where they saw to it that he would be shown a good time by a stunning Romanian girl, Gabriela… Because of her, Bokassa secretly accepted 10% of the profits, paid into a Swiss account, from the diamond mines he arranged for Romania to operate…This relationship lasted 2 years and so did Bokassa and Gabriela.”
(Red Horizons by Ion Pacepa, p.70.)
. During this time, Bokassa had another good friend, France’s President Giscard d’Estaing. On October 10, 1979, the French newspaper Le Canard Enchainé reported that President Giscard d’Estaing had accepted two diamonds in 1973 from Bokassa. This erupted into a scandal called, L’Affaire des Diamonds which was followed in early December 1979 by another scandal, the friendship of Bokassa and Gaddafi. Bokassa in 1976, had converted to Islam and had changed his name with the supposition that Gaddafi would bestow financial aid to him and his country. Several months later when aid did not come from Gaddafi, Bokassa converted back to Catholicism.
. It should not be forgotten that Giscard d’Estaing sold Alouette andPuma helicopters to Ceausescu. In this way the French President was able to show a surge in the economy and win re-election. He did not inform his voters that the planes were to be used by Arafat and the PLO’s. For this business deal, Giscard introduced Ceausescu to Bokassa with whom Giscard was also doing business.
. Pacepa tells us that “In 1975, Ceausescu ordered me to obtain the technology and equipment for producing synthetic diamonds…At the beginning of January 1978 we started industrial production on a large scale.” (Red Horizons by Ion Pacepa, p.71.)
. Ceausescu told Pacepa, “Your DIE (Espionage Agency) has to sellstars (diamonds) secretly on the Western market – the same way it does with the cocaine in transit from Asia to Europe that we confiscate at the border.”(Ibid., p.72.)

. Ceausescu claimed that “Oil and Jews are our best export commodities.” From the 1950’s to the 1970’s, Israel wanted to get the Romania Jews who had survived the Holocaust to be freed from Communist Romania and emigrate to Israel. The Mossad was amenable to pay for this service by using their middleman, Jacober, to negotiate with Romanian dictators, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and then Ceausescu. When Jacober died of cancer, the deputy director of Israeli Intelligence for Immigration, a native Romanian with an Israeli diplomatic passport, became Ceausescu’s partner. For these transactions, Ceausescu earned “hundreds of millions of dollars” in cash.
. Israel also supplied Romania with Centurion tanks as part of a barter system. Ceausescu later copied and manufactured these tanks and shared them with his friends.

. Romanian newspaper, International Curentul, April 7, 2005, p. 3A, relates how Ceausescu sold parts of the atomic bomb to dictator Kim Jung II from 1978-1980.
. The New York Times narrates how Kim Jung II sold Libya uranium hexafluoride for nuclear centrifuges.”( The New York Times, David E. Sanger, February 2, 2005, p. A1)
.“North Korea’s plutonium program dates back to 1986, U.S. official says. (This is during Ceausescu’s era.) There are records for the 5-megawatt reactor and fuel processing plant at the Yongbyon nuclear complex.”  (Wall St. Journal, “North Korea: Nuclear Program Documents Appear Complete, U.S. says,” May 14, 2008.)

. Secret agents of the Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein, lived, studied and worked in Romania as part of an Iraqi terrorist network in Romania. “During the Communist era, students (secret agents) came from Iraq, Iran, Sudan and Libya to study in Bucharest. Often they married and stayed… A Romanian arm of al-Dawa smuggles Iraqi defectors out of Iraq, into Romania, and on to western Europe.” (The Wall St Journal, “Romania’s Expulsion of Iraqi Diplomat Fuels Suspicion of Baghdad’s Activity in Europe,” by Rick Jarvis.)


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. http://www.ccnr/org/exports); (Exporting Disaster: The Cost of Selling CANDU Reactors, “Chapter 2, “China, India, Romania, Korea, Turkey,” by David Martin, November 1996, Ontario, Canada.
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. Pacepa, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai, Red Horizons. Washington D.C., Regnery Gateway, 1987.
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. Radic, Branko, Interview. Military Attache, Mission of Croatia. June 2010.
. Siani-Davies, Peter, The Romanian Revolution, New York,Cornell Press, Cornell, 2007.
. Tismaneanu, Vladimir, Stalinism for all Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism, University of California Press, 2003.
. Toland, John, Adolf Hitler. New York: Dounleday & Co., 1976.

For more information related to Ceausescu’s business and terrorist activities, please follow this link to the “resources” section.